Even an ecosystem orchestrator has limited means to enforce or control the behavior of partners, compared with a hierarchical supply chain or an integrated model. Companies need to come up with new and unconventional ways to monetize the value of their ecosystem beyond charging for access or transaction fees, such as targeted advertising, charging for enhanced access or complementary services, selling data, or expanding into adjacent products or services. An ecosystem is a complex web of interdependent enterprises and relationships aimed to create and allocate business value. Similarly, in electric vehicles, Tesla initially followed an integrated model, even building its own battery production and charging infrastructure, while Better Place tried to establish an ecosystem model by separating car ownership from the battery and offering battery charging and renting as a service. Boston Consulting Group partners with leaders in business and society to tackle their most important challenges and capture their greatest opportunities. 1 For example, research by the BCG Henderson Institute found that in annual reports the term “ecosystem” occurs 13 times more frequently now than it did a decade ago. The change of one component requires changes of other components to realize its value, as illustrated by the coevolution and continuous debottlenecking of the semiconductor lithography system over the past 60 years. Analyze Business Ecosystem Modeling projects and describe which business rules are needed as Business Ecosystem Modeling interface. IBM started developing the PC system in the 1970s. It is not easy to identify and match the required partners, which is the value proposition of most matchmaking platforms. ここにきて、ビジネス用語としてもすっかり市民権を獲得した感のある「エコシステム」だが、その一方で、言葉だけが独り歩きしてしまい、関係者の間で議論がかみ合わなかったり認識に齟齬が生じてしまったりすることも少なくない。そこで本稿では、企業の強さをエコシステムという視点から分析・研究している京都大学経営管理大学院の椙山泰生教授に、エコシステムの概念が生まれた背景から、企業がエコシステムを実現し競争優位を獲得していく際の課題・留意点に至るまで詳しく解説していただいた。ビジネスエコシステムを正しく理解するための一助になれば幸いである。, 京都大学経営管理大学院教授の椙山泰生氏は開口一番、「近年、大企業といえども新たな事業の立ち上げを単独で行うのが難しくなり、事業全体の中で協業企業が何をするかを考えなければ、ビジネスがうまく回らない領域が増えてきました。つまり、既存の業種や業界といった枠を超えた形での相互依存が不可欠になってきたのです。それにつれて、こうしたエコシステムをどのように管理するのかを考える必要も生じています」と、ビジネスエコシステム(事業生態系)という言葉が生まれた背景を簡潔に解き明かしてくれた。, つまり、イノベーションを起こすには、新たな技術の導入や様々なアイデアの結びつけが必要となるが、そうしたことをこれまでのように企業が単独で行うのではなく、多くのプレーヤーが自分たちの得意とする領域の技術やノウハウ、知見を持ち寄って事業を発展させていくというのが、ビジネスエコシステムの基本的な考え方になるわけだ。協業によってイノベーションを起こし、ビジネスを大きくしていこうというビジネス戦略である。, それでは、エコシステムという言葉はいつごろ生まれ、どのような場面で使われるようになっていったのであろうか。, エコシステムという言葉が使われ始めたのは、1990年代前半のことであった。シリコンバレーのスタートアップ企業が、他の企業やベンチャーキャピタルなどの協力を得ながら、事業を立ち上げ、成功を収めていく状況を説明するのに用いられたのが当初の使われ方であった。, 新規の事業を立ち上げるときは、リスクを取る人(企業)、技術を提供する人(企業)、お金を出す人(企業)といったように、様々なプレーヤーがかかわる。これらのプレーヤーを巻き込んで事業が発展していくありさまを自然界の生態系になぞらえて、エコシステムという言葉で表すようになったのである。, 並行して、シリコンバレーに限らず広くICT業界でエコシステムという言葉が使われるようになり、経営戦略や組織について、主体となる企業と周りの企業との関係が研究されることが多くなってきた。椙山氏によれば、とりわけスマートフォンなどの領域では、ビジネスを構成する企業が多様で、その境界線や企業間のバランスが変動するスピードが速く、直接取引していなくても高レベルで相互依存している企業もあるため、そのビジネスを分析する上ではエコシステムという概念がなじむのだという。, 注意すべきなのは、シリコンバレーのスタートアップで使われたエコシステムと、現在のICT業界のエコシステムとでは、「生態系」の構成要員(プレーヤー)に違いがあるということだ。ICT業界では、構成要員は製品やサービスで相互依存している企業群であり、事業そのものを相互依存しあっているという意味合いが強い。一方、シリコンバレーのエコシステムではスタートアップを生み出して成長させるための仕組みに焦点が当たっているため、構成要員には新しく事業を起こすベンチャー企業のほか、事業を支援するベンチャーキャピタルや大学研究所、コンサルタントなどが含まれることになる。つまり、ICT業界のエコシステムとは違って、一緒に事業をする企業だけが集まっているわけではないのである。, シリコンバレーで産声を上げたエコシステムは、上述のようにその性格や構成要員を変化させながら、いま急速に経済社会に定着しつつある。だが、椙山氏は、「様々な条件がそろわなければ、エコシステムは事業として成功しません。どんな事業にもとりあえずエコシステムを適用しておきさえすればいいという考え方は適切ではありません」と警鐘を鳴らす。, というのも、エコシステム自体が「特定の領域にしか適合しない概念」(椙山氏)だからである。例えば、かつてフォードは工場内で素材の生産から自動車の組み立てまでを行う垂直構造の生産システムをつくることで、低コストでの大量生産を可能にした。このような垂直統合のほうが向いている状況や領域は、現在でも多く存在している。大企業が社内に垂直統合のシステムを構築して成功しているようなケースではエコシステムが成り立たないのである。, 他方、自由に動き回るプレーヤーが多く存在し、誰にも調整できないような混沌とした状態においてもまた、エコシステムは機能しがたい。このような場面でどうしてもエコシステムを形成したければ、強力な調整力を持った存在が必要となる。自然界の生態系とは異なり、ビジネスの場ではプレーヤー間の調整なしにはエコシステムは形成されないのである。, また、エコシステムを発展させる上では、誰がシステムの中核となるのかということも重要になる。, エコシステムを基盤とする事業を推進しようとする場合、多くのプレーヤーが、自らが中核となってビジネスを動かしたいと考えるはずだ。しかしながら、中核プレーヤーとなれる企業は限られている。エコシステムを成功させる上では「中核プレーヤー」が、「それぞれの構成要員(プレーヤー)がどういった技術、ノウハウ、アイデアを持っているかを把握している」「他のプレーヤーをコーディネートすることで利益を生み出す仕組みをつくれる」「中核プレーヤーが業界全体からオーケストレートするプレーヤーとして適任であると認められている」という3つの条件(資格)を満たしている必要があるのだ。, 例えば、アップルやグーグル、LINEが提供するプラットフォーム上でエコシステムを形成する場合、当然のことながらアップルなどが中核プレーヤーとなる。そしてそれぞれのエコシステムの構成要員である他のプレーヤーたちもアップルなどが中核プレーヤーになることに異議を唱えることはないはずだ。アップルもグーグルもLINEも上記の3つの要件を満たしており、構成要員となっているプレーヤーの信頼も厚いから、「そのエコシステムに乗れば成功できるだろうという期待がプレーヤー全員に生まれる。そこで全員が同じ方向に向けて資源を投入するようになり、ビジネス全体の投資や活動が盛んになる。その結果、エコシステムがさらに拡大する」(椙山氏)という好循環が生まれるのである。アップルやグーグル、LINEのような強力な主体が、進むべき方向を描き各プレーヤーに明示してやることで、イノベーションを推進しやすくなり、システム全体を一段上の段階に持っていきやすくなるわけである。, もう1つ、プラットフォームにおけるプレーヤーの自由度も、エコシステムを発展させるための要素として挙げられる。「現在のところ、アップルはスマートフォンのエコシステムを立ち上げることに成功しているが、グーグルのプラットフォームはアップルよりもプレーヤーの自由度を高めることによって、エコシステムに参加しやすい状況を作り出している」と、椙山氏は「プレーヤーの自由度」の重要性を強調する。, (以下、後編に続く。なお、後編では、エコシステムを形成することで成長を遂げた企業の実例を基に、エコシステムが発展するための条件を提示していく予定である), 京都大学経営管理大学院教授。東京大学法学部、東京大学大学院経済学研究科修士、同博士後期課程修了。博士(経済学)。ソニー株式会社、東京大学大学院経済学研究科助手、京都大学大学院経済学研究科助教授などを経て、現職。. The open-market model spurred the production, commercialization, and adoption of PCs all over the world. Deliberate business ecosystems might emerge in a more planned manner — for example, Amazon’s ecosystem of sellers, buyers, advertisers and collaborators. ※本記事で表明されている見解は、必ずしも日本ユニシスグループの見解を反映するものではありません。. On the one hand, product standardization increases modularity because dominant designs reduce the variety of potential components, and interfaces between components become more clearly defined. A business ecosystem, in which you coordinate with other, largely independent economic players in order to create a coherent offering An open-market model, in which the customer selects and buys the required components from The individual components of the solution can be easily and flexibly combined, but a certain level of coordination is needed to identify the required partners, specify their roles, and align their activities. For example, effective disease management solutions require a clear definition and division of responsibility for patient treatment and data sharing among insurance companies, individual practitioners, hospitals, labs, pharmacies, and technology companies. Business ecosystem is a relatively new concept in the field of business research, and there is still a lot of work to be done to establish it. However, limited initial value capture may be the price of the opportunity to scale fast and grow what can become a powerful oligopolistic position. Symbiosis, platform, and co-evolution are three characteristics of a business ecosystem that can be used to analyze Cisco's growth opportunities. And even if you have established a strong market position, once you start losing share, network effects can quickly reverse and work against you, as illustrated by the fast collapse of the once-dominant BlackBerry and Myspace ecosystems. This article is the first in a series on business ecosystems. Peltoniemi considered that any business ecosystem had these basic characteristics: member interconnectedness, coexistence of competition and cooperation, Challenge and dynamics of environment.Regarding characters of EB, we consider the fundamental characters are hierarchy, interconnectedness, openness and dynamics. 25-36 / December 2009 Introduction The application of e-business has grown rapidly © Boston Consulting Group 2020. Digital technology increases the speed, reach, convenience, efficiency, and scalability of many ecosystems and is thus an important driver of their current growth. And this is probably an optimistic estimate given the impossibility of completely eliminating survivor bias. Their modular setup, with a stable core or platform and stable interfaces—but highly variable components that can be easily added or subtracted from the system—enable both high variety and a high capacity to evolve. Similarly, LinkedIn has moved toward a solution ecosystem model after its acquisition by Microsoft. Within the coral reefs inhabit mollusks, a great variety of algae and some 4,000 different species of fish. As product and process standards for building and operating electric vehicles are increasingly established, we can expect the usual trend toward higher modularity and lower need for coordination. Unit 5, Lesson 5.1 - Characteristics of Ecological Systems Lesson Outline: 1. To fill this gap, Intel created the Intel Architecture Lab (IAL), which set out to drive architectural progress on the PC system, stimulate and facilitate innovation on complementary products, and coordinate outside firms’ innovation to drive the development of new system capabilities. Even defined in this stringent way, a business ecosystem is a broad concept and includes, among other things: marketplaces that bring together large numbers of producers of products or services and potential customers, for example, in retail (Amazon, eBay, Taobao), hospitality (Airbnb, TripAdvisor, Open Table), ride hailing (Uber, Lyft, Didi), and freelance labor (Upwork, Croogster, Fiverr); IT systems that integrate components and applications from multiple providers on a common platform (such as Microsoft Windows, Apple iOS, Android, SAP NetWeaver); offerings that integrate components from different players, for example, video games, e-readers, smart home systems, residential solar energy solutions, self-driving vehicles, 3D printing, IoT solutions; and offerings that integrate services from different providers, for example, credit card systems, disease management platforms, smart farming or mining solutions. For example, Walgreens Boots Alliance CEO Stefano Pessina early this year declared that his company’s partnership with Microsoft will help create an “ecosystem” connecting its drugstores to patients, their insurers, and local medical care providers; SoftBank founder Masayoshi Son announced his ambition to create an “ecosystem” of companies for a second Vision Fund that can collaborate to accelerate growth; and the government of Canada announced support for a new aerospace innovation “ecosystem.”. Related to the challenge of limited control is the problem of value capture. Finally, part of the attractiveness of business ecosystems stems from their flexibility and resilience. This potential for system-level innovation increased the need for coordination, but the open-market model limited opportunities and incentives for advancing the overall PC system architecture. Tian and colleagues (2008) define a business ecosystem as a: “…configuration of people, technology, shared information Partner & Director, BCG Henderson Institute Fellow, Managing Director & Senior Partner, Director of the BCG Henderson Institute. To this end, a business ecosystem is a governance model that competes with other ways of organizing the creation of a product or service, such as a vertically integrated organization, a hierarchical supply chain, or an open-market model. There are many examples of physical ecosystems, such as electric vehicles, solar power systems, and 3D-printing solutions, in which the players interact directly and not through a platform. The,Silicon,Valley,Ecosystem:,Overview,, Silicon Valley has a variety of business organizations and institutions that create a business environment that has proved to be highly conducive to the successful creation of This observation may also explain the current focus on business ecosystems: on the one hand, digitization facilitates modularity and enables more open governance models, on the other hand, the resulting boom of business model innovation increases the need for coordination among players, making business ecosystems an advantaged governance model. However, the open-market model restricted innovation. Of course, there are also drawbacks to the ecosystem model. Invest in a Region that creates a positive business environment, a Region that creates opportunities and is a pioneer in the effort to a Greece of production and work. An ecosystem’s culture is rich in social capital, social trust, and other factors that facilitate coordination and cooperation amongst the people of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. However, as the example of the PC system also illustrates, discontinuous innovation may increase the need for coordination again because it introduces new components or new combinations of existing components, and a change in one component may require changes in other components to fully realize the benefits at a system level. Highly modular offerings lend themselves to an open-market model. Moreover, positive network effects can foster explosive growth for transaction ecosystems that solve the chicken-or-egg problem. By Ulrich Pidun, Martin Reeves, and Maximilian Schüssler, The term “business ecosystem” has firmly established itself in the dictionary of management buzzwords. Decide what role your organization will play in these ecosystems: Leader, disruptor, niche player, orchestrator, or … For instance, collaboration between one company that may be specialized in research and another that specializes in export and distribution pro… The two ecosystem archetypes differ not only in their structural form and types of members, but also in their purpose, success factors, and value creation mechanism. (See Exhibit 2.). For more ideas and inspiration from the Institute, please visit Featured Insights. In many industries, we see competing governance models. The establishment of the ecosystem concept is attributed to James Moore in his 1993 article “Predators and Prey: A New Ecology of Competition.” Moore utilized the metaphor of natural ecosystems to explain the complex, dynamic and evolving characteristics of modern business and competition. E-business Ecosystem and its Evolutionary Path/ Huang et al. In particular during the startup phase, an ecosystem model can provide fast access to external capabilities that may be too expensive or time-consuming to build internally. However, IBM had not made exclusive agreements to control the core hardware components (such as the Intel microprocessor) and the core software components (such as Microsoft DOS). What are the basic types of business ecosystem? business ecosystem that crosses a variety of industries. Related Expertise: An ecosystem has to be a club that others want to join. Similarly, as early as the fourteenth century, the city of Prato, Italy, had established a textile industry as an ecosystem of independent craftsmen specializing in weaving, carding, spinning, fulling, and dyeing, and orchestrated by powerful wool merchants that acted as the trading hubs of the system and provided critical functions of production coordination, quality control, and even financing.1 Shaping strategies require you to collaborate with others because you cannot shape the industry alone and you need others to share the risk, contribute complementary capabilities, and build the new market quickly, before competitors mobilize. As the technology behind many platforms becomes more standardized and commoditized, the need for coordination may decline and, with it, the importance of the orchestrator. We suggest thinking of a business ecosystem as a solution to a business problem, as a way to organize in order to realize a specific value proposition. The interfaces between the components are not well standardized, such as in the competing battery and charging technologies for electric vehicles. You have multiple options for organizing the required activities: Under which conditions is a business ecosystem the advantaged governance model for your business opportunity? The impact of these characteristics on an industry can provides additional insights; such as, short and long-term viability and future Such environments enable “shaping” strategies, Value Creation in Innovation Ecosystems: How the Structure of Technological Interdependence Affects Firm Performance in New Technology Generations, Building a Resilient Business Inspired by Biology. Successful innovation systems are typically characterised by an active knowledge economy, comprising academic, public sector and business R&D and innovation activities with effective commercialisation and all supported by flexible public policy mechanisms. An ecosystem that does not have a proper culture does not grow or inspire people to move quickly. Many large digital platforms that have achieved high financial valuations, such as Uber and Lyft, still struggle to earn substantial profits. The roles and responsibilities of the various partners are not fully specified. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, age, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity / expression, national origin, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected under federal, state or local law, where applicable, and those with criminal histories will be considered in a manner consistent with applicable state and local laws. These examples indicate that, while many of today’s ecosystems are fostered by digitization, the concept of an ecosystem does not strictly require a digital business model. By adjusting strategies, processes, and tools to fit into the business ecosystem, companies and individuals need to find new approaches to manage resources, as oftentimes these are critical to their success. INFOGRAPHIC 6 FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUSTAINABLE ECOSYSTEM Ecosystems found on Earth today have the capacity to be naturally sustainable—those that were not died out long ago. Better Place failed, but probably because of an overly optimistic expansion strategy rather than a flawed business model design. Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: Definitions and Characteristics So, the ecosystem plays a very vital role in the growth or decline of the business firm. Today, we help clients with total transformation—inspiring complex change, enabling organizations to grow, building competitive advantage, and driving bottom-line impact. A business ecosystem, in which you coordinate with other, largely independent economic players in order to create a coherent offering An open-market model, in which the customer selects and buys the required components from However, there are some situations in which the customer clearly benefits from closer coordination among the components, and these are the sweet spots for business ecosystems. Value creation in a transaction ecosystem is thus driven by the number of successful transactions and their benefits to both sides of the market. In effect, the business ecosystem consists of a network of interlinked companies that dynamically interact with each other through competition and cooperation to grow sales and survive. In a business ecosystem, the capabilities of a firm co-evolve around innovations unique to that ecosystem. Many digital platforms have reversed the widespread trend of disintermediation by replacing inefficient and nonscalable intermediaries with automated, data-based algorithms and social feedback. For example, the Apple iPhone started as a solution ecosystem, with Apple as core firm coordinating a coherent solution with component suppliers, app developers, and telecom providers, but after the introduction of the App Store, it also became a platform and marketplace for selling apps. The Institute engages leaders in provocative discussion and experimentation to expand the boundaries of business theory and practice and to translate innovative ideas from within and beyond business. A product or service solution exhibits high modularity if its components can be combined easily and flexibly and integrated at low (transaction) cost. To react to these pressures on their business models, many platform providers have begun to offer services beyond matchmaking on both sides of the market. If you decide to build you own business ecosystem, make sure that you are prepared for the challenges of limited control and constrained value capture and for the strategic requirements of building, growing, and protecting such an ecosystem.

cheez it snack mix ingredients

Is Dichlorine Monoxide Polar, Earth The Living Planet Class 3, Ncert Geography Handwritten Notes, Karel Martens: Printed Matter, Simple Smoothing Facial Scrub, Twix 50g Price Philippines, Find The Fox Quiz Answers, How To Make Chocolate Milkshake Without Cocoa Powder,